In Silico Taste, Cytochrome and Toxicity Prediction Study of Major Chamomile Constituents


  • Kafa Khalaf Hammud Ministry of Science and Technology – Iraq



Chamomile, Cytochrome enzymes, Toxicity, In Silico


Chamomile is an ancient herb used for various medications. It contains many bioactive constituents such as volatile oils, terpenoids, flavonoids, lactones, acid esters, glycosides and others. By reviewing many references, a confliction appeared of using Chamomile preparations to treat primary teeth eruption symptoms as a therapy administered by pediatric dentist or pediatrician. In this study, thirteen bioactive constituents (α-bisabolol (B), chamazulene (C), umbelliferone (U), apigenin (A), apigetrin (AT), apiin (AI), luteolin (L), quercetin (Q), quercimertrin (QT), rutin (R), α-cadinene (CD), α-farnesene (F), and matricarin (M) were subject to computational predication through various online websites to predicate their taste, activity towards several CYP450 enzymes and their action as Hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic compounds. Our calculations revealed several points such as high value of taste predication indicated that Chamomile constituents under study were with sour taste, did not classify as individual fatal compound Class (GHS) 1 or 2, 44.87% of them showed inhibition character toward specific cytochrome P450 enzyme while 43.59% were non- inhibition character, more than (0.5) probability predication of various cytochrome P450 enzymes gave a positive activity that may affect liver functions. Also, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, mutagenicity, and cytotoxicity predictions were more than (0.5), unsaturated Chamomile constituent (Farnesene, F) had highest immune – and mutagenic properties whilst the disaccharide flavonoid (Rutin, R) had the highest Carcino- immunogenic response. According to the above notes, our conclusion is to use minimum concentration of Chamomile preparation for less period of time and lowest repeating intake that ensure effective treatment of teething symptoms under supervision of pediatricians with minimum side effect.




How to Cite

Hammud, K. K. (2021). In Silico Taste, Cytochrome and Toxicity Prediction Study of Major Chamomile Constituents. Iraqi Journal of Industrial Research, 8(3), 108–117.



Pharmaceutical & Food Section