Improving the Thermal Efficiency of Flat Plate Solar Collector Using Nano-Fluids as a Working Fluids: A Review
Keywords:Solar Energy, Solar Collector, Nano-Fluids, Thermal Efficiency
Solar energy is one of the most important types of renewable energy and is characterized by its availability, especially in Iraq. It can be used in many applications, including supply thermal energy by solar collectors. Improving the thermal efficiency of solar collector leads to an increase in the thermal energy supplied. Using a nano-fluid instead of base fluid (water is often used) as a working fluid is a method many used to increase the thermal efficiency of solar collectors. In this article, the latest research that used nano-fluid as a working fluid in evaluating the thermal efficiency of solar collector, type flat plate was reviewed. The thermal efficiency improvement of flat plate solar collector was reviewed based on the type of nanoparticles (metal oxides, semiconductors oxides, carbon compounds) used in the base fluid and comparison was made between these nanoparticles under the same conditions. Moreover, the effect of varying the concentration of nanoparticles in the base fluid and changing the working fluid flow rate on the thermal efficiency of flat plate solar collector was also reviewed. The results of the review showed that nano-fluids containing carbon compounds are better than other nano-fluids and that copper oxide is better than the rest of the metal oxides used in improving the thermal efficiency of flat plate solar collectors.